The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!
If you “curseGod’s Bride, Israel, you “curse” the God of Israel!
If you don’t believe Genesis 1:1-11:32, how can you possibly believe John 3:16?

“Indeed, all who want to live a godly life united with the Messiah Yeshua will be persecuted.” (2Tim 3:12)
It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Please Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church or anti-Rabbinic. I am not anti-anything or anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

© Copyright and Permissions ©

Except where otherwise indicated, all content of this website
Copyright ©1983,1985,1993-2023 Dr. Rickard (Ari) Levitt-Sawyer.

Copyright Provisions

The Center for Messianic Learning by Dr. Rickard L. Sawyer is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Specific additional copyright information is posted on applicable pages.

A sincere effort has been made to locate sources and obtain permission where necessary for the quotations and graphics used in all documents and pages on this site. To the best of my knowledge and belief, all other materials are in the public domain. However, in accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107, any copyrighted material contained herein for which we have been unable to obtain publication permission is reproduced herein without profit or payment, as is provided only for the purpose of non-profit research and education only, and is reprinted under the Fair Use doctrine of international copyright law.

Scripture Versions Copyrights

In all Scripture versions quoted, out of deep respect for HaShem, I have taken the liberty of capitalizing nouns and pronouns that refer to Deity, whether or not they are capitalized in the original.

CJB: Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Complete Jewish Bible by David H. Stern. Copyright © 1998. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Messianic Jewish Publishers, 6120 Day Long Lane, Clarksville, MD 21029.

AMP: Scripture quotations marked AMP are taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 2015 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.
   Scripture quotations marked AMPC are taken from the Amplified® Bible, Copyright © 1954, 1958, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1987 by The Lockman Foundation. Used by permission.

ASV: The American Standard Version Bible is in the public domain in the United States.

BSB: Scripture quotations marked BSB are taken from The Holy Bible, Berean Standard Bible, BSB, Copyright © 2016, 2020 by Bible Hub. Used by Permission. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. A formal license to use this version online was obtained from // on Saturday, October 1, 2022. The Holy Bible, Berean Standard Bible, BSB is produced in cooperation with Bible Hub, Discovery Bible,, and the Berean Bible Translation Committee. The various Berean Bible Versions may be found at these websites:
   // - Berean Bible Homepage
   // - Berean Interlinear Bible
   // - Berean Literal Bible
   // - Berean Standard Bible
   // - Berean Annotated Bible
   // - Majority Standard Bible
Versions in multiple formats are available for free downloading at

The Berean Bible and Majority Bible texts are officially placed into the public domain as of April 30, 2023. See terms and conditions.

CEB: Scripture quotations marked CEB are from the COMMON ENGLISH BIBLE. © Copyright 2011 COMMON ENGLISH BIBLE. All rights reserved. Used by permission. (

CSB/HCSB: Scripture quotations marked CSB or HCSB have been taken from the Christian Standard Bible®, Copyright © 2017 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Christian Standard Bible® and CSB® are federally registered trademarks of Holman Bible Publishers.

Darby: Scripture quotations marked (Dar) or (Darby) are taken from the DARBY BIBLE, published in 1867, 1872, 1884, 1890; public domain.

DNLT: Scripture quotations marked DLNT are from the Disciples’ Literal New Testament: Serving Modern Disciples by More Fully Reflecting the Writing Style of the Ancient Disciples, Copyright © 2011 Michael J. Magill. All Rights Reserved. Published by Reyma Publishing.

ESV: Scripture quotations marked ESV are from The ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

GNT: Scripture quotations marked (GNT) are from the Good News Translation in Today’s English Version- Second Edition Copyright © 1992 by American Bible Society. Used by Permission.

HNV: Scripture quotations marked HNV are taken from the Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible, a Modern English update of the American Standard Version. This translation is in the Public Domain, so feel free to copy.

ISV: Scripture quotations marked ISV are from the International Standard Version® Release 2.0. Copyright © 1996-2013 by the ISV Foundation. Used by permission of Davidson Press, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED INTERNATIONALLY.

KJV: Scripture quotations marked (KJV) are taken from the KING JAMES VERSION, public domain.

KJV21: Scripture quotations marked KJV21 are taken from the 21ST CENTURY KING JAMES VERSION of the Bible. Copyright© 1994 by Deuel Enterprises, Inc. Used by Permission.

LEB: Scripture quotations marked (LEB) are from the Lexham English Bible. Copyright 2012 Logos Bible Software. Lexham is a registered trademark of Logos Bible Software.

MSG: Scripture quotations marked MSG are taken from THE MESSAGE, copyright © 1993, 2002, 2018 by Eugene H. Peterson. Used by permission of NavPress. All rights reserved. Represented by Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

NAS/NASB: Scripture quotations marked NAS or NASB are taken from the New American Standard Bible®, Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation, La Habra, Calif. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

NASB95: Scripture quotations marked NASB95 are taken from the New American Standard Bible®, 1995 Update, Copyright © 1960, 1971, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation. All rights reserved.

NCB: Scripture quotations marked NCB are taken from THE NEW CATHOLIC BIBLE®. Copyright © 2019 Catholic Book Publishing Corp. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

NCV: Scripture quotations marked NCV are taken from the New Century Version. Copyright © 1987, 1988, 1991 by Thomas Nelson, Inc. Used by permission. All rights reserved.

NIV: Scripture quotations marked NIV are taken from the Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV®. Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.™ Used by permission of Zondervan. All rights reserved worldwide.

I only quote from the NIV for comparison with other, actually reliable translations. As the “translators” have worked very hard to produce a “politically correct” and “gender-friendly” document, I agree with those who refer to this particular work as the “Non-Inspired Version” or “Nearly Inflammable Version.” (So to me it’s the I'm Not Interested [in this] Version.)

NLT: Scripture quotations marked NLT are from Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright © 1996, 2004, 2015 by Tyndale House Foundation. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Carol Stream, Illinois 60188. All rights reserved.

WMB: Scripture quotations marked WMB are from the World Messianic Bible, a Public Domain translation of the Holy Bible into modern English as spoken among Messianic Jews. It has also been called the World English Bible: Messianic Edition and the Hebrew Names Version.

YLT: Scripture quotations marked YLT are from 1898 Young's Literal Translation by Robert Young, an extremely literal translation that attempts to preserve the tense and word usage as found in the original Greek and Hebrew writings. It is in the public domain.

RLS: Scripture quotations that are identified as my own (RLS) or marked “literal” are my own attempt at translation or paraphrase and should not be considered authoritative. Upon occasion, I have felt that a different translation of a word or phrase better represents the original. In these cases the changed text is enclosed in [square brackets]. When my initials are used in a comment, it denotes that the comment is my own personal opinion, with which you are certainly at liberty to disagree.


Maps are from Created using BibleMapper 3.0. Additional data from

Commentary Copyrights

Some notes and comments in my Paraphrase and Commentary of the whole Bible are taken directly or derived from The Complete Jewish Study Bible, by Rabbi Barry A. Rubin (ed.), copyright 2016 by Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Massachusetts. Used by permission. All rights reserved.” When quoted directly they are identified by (CJSB).

Please Report Any Copyright Infringement

I have made a sincere effort to appropriately provide credit for all material that is not my own intellectual property. If you find any copyrighted information on this website that you feel I have used without proper permission and credit, please contact me immediately so we may correct the unintentional transgression.

In accordance with the “fair use” provisions of Title 17 US Code, section 107 (17USC107), some material on this web site is provided without permission from the copyright owner, only for the permitted purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research as permitted under the “fair use” provisions of federal copyright laws. Except for the same “fair use” purposes, these materials may not be distributed further without permission of the copyright owner. If you feel that I have inadvertently infringed upon your copyright, please please contact me and I will immediately remove that material from the site.

Page last updated on Monday, 11 December 2023 12:05 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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