The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
ב״ה
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!

It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Caricature of Rick Sawyer pointing to the paragraphPlease Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church or anti-Rabbinic. I am not anti-anything or anti-anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

Developing a
Systematic Messianic Theology

Caricature of Professor Rick Sawyer pointing at the text“The purpose of careful theological formulations is not to put barriers in the way of people who are seeking salvation, but to define clearly the truths upon which genuine [Biblical] faith rests, so that people will not be misled by false doctrines.” [Bowman]

“It must be clearly and unequivocally stated that theology cannot save you. Only faith in Messiah Yeshua can save you. Theology can only give you sound doctrine.” [RLS]

Unless otherwise specified, throughout this website I use the term “Torah” in the wider sense of including the entire body of inspired Scripture — both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings.  I do not consider the Mishnah (the “Oral Torah”) as part of Torah, nor do I consder any other so-called “sacred writings” either inspired by God or authoritative for the Believer’s walk of faith. You should make up your own mind.

[Explanations of rabbinic citations are HERE]


My Mantra

Approx. Reading time: 30 min.

Introduction to
Systematic Theology

On this Page
The Science of Theology
The Need for a Messianic
    Jewish Systematic Theology
The Task of Developing a
    Messianic Systematic Theology
Protestant Systematic Theology
Jewish Systematic Theology
The Mindset of a Messianic
    Systematic Theology
FINALLY, a Disclaimer
In This Section

After you have read this page, it is recommended that
you begin your study of the science of theology HERE.

“We are all on the path. We know Yeshua but we haven’t finished the course, we haven’t finished the race. We’re on the path and each person will be learning with a measure of the Spirit according to the grace that God has poured out on them. Let us not forget that just because we know the Truth — and we know it now — we are still growing. Though other people may not know, the grace of God is still pouring out on those who are living in ignorance.” [author unknown][a]
 

Yeshua said, “… it has been given to you to know the secrets of the Kingdom of Heaven, but it has not been given to them.” (Matthew 13:11; cf. Luke 8:10)

The Science of Theology

“… the majority of Western Europeans and a large minority of Americans have already become effective atheists: they rarely if ever go to any church, and a belief in God plays no role in their daily lives. The evidence is clear and unequivocal: if scientists have no need for the God hypotheses, neither will anyone else. Were theologians to succeed in their attempt to strictly separate science and religion, they would kill religion. Theology simply must become a branch of physics if it is to survive.” [his emphasis]

Frank J. Tipler, The Physics of Immortality, p. 10

In a letter addressed to the sister of his best friend who had just died, Albert Einstein wrote, “Now he has again preceded me a little in parting from this strange world. This has no importance. For people like us who believe in physics, the separation between past, present, and future has only the importance of an admittedly tenacious illusion.” I (RLS) believe he was very close to seeing time as the Creator sees it.

Quotation found in “Einstein Believed In A Theory Of Spacetime That Can
Help People Cope With Loss” on Forbes online, accessed 7 November 2023

When people find out that I am a theological scientist,[8] or theologian, they get all kinds of strange ideas. Then when I tell them that they are also a theologian, they really get confused. Let me see if I can clarify the concept a bit.

The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines “theology” as “the study of religious faith, practice, and experience; especially the study of God and God’s relation to the world…” and “theologian” as “a specialist in theology.”

The word “theology” comes from two Greek words: Theos, which means “God,” and logos, which means “words.” The simplest definition of theology, then, is “God words” or words about God. “Theology,” therefore, is simply “the words through which we think about God” and a “theologian” is “a person who thinks about God using words.” So, surprise! If you spend much time thinking about God, and you put those thoughts into words (which most people do) — whether or not you utter those words aloud — you are a theologian!

But sloppy theology is a serious problem, and that is what this section of the website is about.

As I personally define the term, a “theologian” is anyone who thinks about God. Just about everybody thinks about God from time to time. Even a self-proclaimed atheist[1] has to think about God in order to arrive at the opinion that He does not exist.

I don’t have a problem with people who hold theological positions other than mine. My problem is with people who do not have the grace to allow me to have different beliefs than theirs.

But I would hope that you are not satisfied to be “just a theologian” — just someone who thinks about God. My hope for you would be that you would desire to become “a theological scientist.” There are “professional” and “amateur” theological scientists just as there are “professional” and “amateur” astronomers or “professional” and “amateur” geologists. The difference between “professional” and “amateur” is generally considered to be whether or not one earns their livelihood from that particular activity.

In essentials, unity;
in non-essentials, liberty;
in all things, charity.

Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430),
John Wesley (1703 – 1791)

To my way of thinking, a “theological scientist” is someone who approaches their consideration of God “scientifically” — that is, carefully and systematically — carefully examining what the Scriptures say and systematically summarizing their teachings into concise statements of “doctrine” (“doctrine” simply means “teaching”) that can then be neatly placed into the various categories established by previous theological scientists. This is true whether or not the theologian commits his/her beliefs to writing.

I first began my long career as a theological scientist in my teen years, when I discovered that the Sunday school and church lessons that I most enjoyed were those that were about what we should believe as Christians and why we should believe the things we believe. Then when I began teaching Sunday school classes regularly, those were the same lessons I most enjoyed teaching. In 1978 I first enrolled in Bible school so that I could become a more effective Bible teacher, spent much of the subsequent 12 years in the classroom both as student and as teacher, and have devoted the majority of my waking hours in the study of theology ever since. It is my passion, and since the passing of my beloved wife, of blessed memory, in 2008 it has become my primary reason for living, and I have committed most of what I have learned to the 2,300 or so pages of this website.

[Page Contents]

The Need for a Messianic Jewish Systematic Theology

There are a number of related articles under “Messianic Issues.”

Christian theology tends to underplay or misrepresent Jewish phenomena. Jewish theology ignores the New Testament. Since any genuine reconciliation of the church and the Jewish people must conform to biblical truth, what is needed before any program of action can be designed is a thought framework that can do justice to both the Messianic and the Jewish elements of any theological topic. The name for such a thought framework is a Messianic Jewish systematic theology.[2]

As far as I have been able to determine after studying the issue for over twenty years, within Messianic Judaism little attention has been paid thus far to the development of a systematic theology. This is due, I believe, to three primary reasons:

  1. Messianic Judaism’s higher priority is to establish itself as a legitimate sect within greater Judaism
  2. Jewish theology is extremely difficult to “codify”[3]
  3. Historically, Judaism (in general) considers itself an “ethical religion” and, as such, is far more concerned with how a person acts than with what a person believes.[4]

In Jewish thought, if your behavior is in general compliance with Rabbinic Tradition, what you believe is pretty much between you and God.[GN] The Sages taught that mankind is created with two inclinations: the Yetzer Hara (evil inclination) and the Yetzer Hatov (good inclination). Though referred to as “evil,” the Yetzer Hara actually denotes physical appetites in general, aggressive emotions, and ambition. Although it can easily lead to wrongdoing, it really denotes more the propensity towards evil rather than something evil in itself.

The answer, according to the Rabbis, is the Torah. If one uses the mitzvot (instructions, commandments) of Torah to regulate one’s conduct, the Yetzer Hara will be kept in check.

While there are only seven or so major Jewish “denominations“ (Orthodox, Reform, Conservative, Messianic, Reconstructionist, Renewal, and Humanist — though the Orthodox recognize only the first three), it must be admitted by any serious student of theology that “systematic theology” is the primary reason that there are currently over 45,000 distinct Christian denominations (plus numerous pseudo-Christian cults) worldwide[5] each one of which holding that their theology is correct and all the others are wrong. People obviously have many different opinions as to what comprises “Christian theology.” Thus, as we develop a systematic theology for Messianic Judaism, we must be extremely careful to avoid the same trap.

Instead of being very dogmatic about any point of our theology we must be careful to preface our theology statements with “we think …” or “we believe …” and leave all the absolutes to God alone, and respect the valid interpretations of others as possible.

The modern Messianic Jewish Movement marks its beginning at approximately the same time as the Israeli Six-Day War in 1967. At the very time that Jerusalem was being liberated from Gentile domination for the first time since being overrun by the Romans in 70 CE, there arose almost simultaneously three centers of Messianic Jewish awareness in America: one in Florida; one in Ohio; one in the San Francisco Bay area. Since those early years the movement has been essentially preoccupied with defining itself and its relationship to both main-stream Judaism and Evangelical Christianity, as it seems to be the “child” of each, but is a theological orphan accepted by neither. In actuality, it is truly the parent of each, as it strives to restore biblical Judaism to that practiced by Yeshua and His Jewish followers in the first century.

To mainstream Judaism, the Messianic Movement is seen primarily as a new “sect” of Christianity whose goals are to evangelize and proselytize unwary Jews to Christianity. To Evangelical Christianity, the Messianic Movement is seen primarily as an attempt to “Judaize” unwary Christians and place them back under the “yoke of the Law.”

Neither of those opinions could be further from the truth. Those within the Movement generally describe themselves as Jewish and non-Jewish followers of the Jewish Messiah Yeshua who desire to express their faith and practice in the same way the first- and second-century Believers in Yeshua did (see “Didache”). They have united for the common purpose of breaking down the barriers which have so long divided the Body of Messiah. The Jewish members of the movement desire only to retain their precious Jewish heritage and traditions while embracing their Messiah; the non-Jewish members desire to claim their status as full members of the Commonwealth of Israel and the family of Avraham, Yitz’chak, and Ya'akov into which they have been “grafted” and adopted by faith in Israel’s Messiah. (Romans 11:17-24)

[Page Contents]

The Task of Developing a Messianic Systematic Theology

The ominous task of developing an “umbrella” Systematic Messianic Theology (if one is actually desired — or even possible) has necessarily been postponed due to the pressing need for the Movement to firmly and clearly identify and define itself, and to gain a measure of acceptance from both the wider Jewish and Christian communities. The task is also significantly hampered by numerous seemingly insurmountable factors, not the least of which is the need to “blend” all that is true in traditional Judaism with all that is true in evangelical Christianity, while at the same time discarding all that is “chaff” within both traditions. The fact that those in the Messianic Jewish Movement come from virtually all of the Jewish traditions and Christian denominations makes the task even more difficult, because of all of the “denominational baggage” and “sacred cows” that come from each of these numerous traditions. Jews can’t agree with other Jews about the major truths of Judaism, and Christians can’t agree with other Christians about the major truths of Christianity; how much more difficult it is to get Jews and Christians to agree with each other about the major truths of the true Biblical faith!

This fact is complicated ever further by the extreme “fringe” elements of the Movement that claim that they are the only “true” Messianic Judaism, but which are in actuality a whole new class of cult that has arisen with the “Messianic Awakening” and which teach abhorrent doctrines and outright heresies that have absolutely no basis in either Jewish or Christian tradition or in Scripture. Among these new cults I specifically identify the so-called “Two House/Two Stick Movement” (which is nothing but a re-emergence and re-stating of the Anglo-Israelism heresy taught by the Armstrongs and others) and the so-called “Sacred Namers” (who flagrantly violate Torah’s prohibition of misusing the Sacred Name and claim that in order to be “saved” one must adopt their particular spelling and pronunciation of the Names of God and Yeshua HaMashiach). There are certainly other fringe elements, but these are the two most prominent of which I am aware at the time of this writing (2019).

[Page Contents]

Protestant Systematic Theology

One of the preliminary tasks in the development of a Messianic Jewish Systematic Theology is to identify the major divisions of that theology. In classical Protestant Systematic Theology there are eleven major divisions of study which include:

  1. Prolegomena: overview, summary statements, and methodology employed
  2. Bibliology: the theology of the Bible
  3. Theology Proper: the theology of God
  4. Christology: the theology of Christ
  5. Pneumatology: the theology of the Holy Spirit
  6. Angelology: the theology of angels and demons
  7. Anthropology: the theology of mankind
  8. Hamartiology: the theology of sin
  9. Soteriology: the theology of salvation
  10. Ecclesiology: the theology of the Church
  11. Eschatology: the theology of Future Things

For the “advanced” Protestant theologian HERE is a series of essays on (primarily) Protestant theology.

[Page Contents]

Jewish Systematic Theology

Classical Jewish “systematic” theology (such as it is) is comprised of only six major themes or topics: (hyperlinks are to a series of lessons on “What Jews Believe: a Brief Introduction to Jewish Theology” at chabad.org).

  1. God: Who or what is God? How do we define the undefinable? Is there an intelligent way to speak of God? If so, what is it? [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  2. Torah: What is Torah? What is a commandment? What is revelation? What happened at Sinai? How Judaism views the Torah as much more than a set of laws. [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  3. The Jews: Why did God give the Torah to the Jews? What does God want from humanity as a whole? Why did He communicate with the Jewish people in a different way? [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  4. The World: Why did God create this physical universe? What role does it play in God’s plan? Why God desires this lowly and crass world, and how the material can ultimately become more Godly than the spiritual. [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  5. Free Choice: If we are part of God’s plan, then why did He give us the choice to deviate from the plan? To what extent do our choices really affect our lives? The importance of free will and its effect on our lives. [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  6. Redemption: The belief in the perfection of this world. What is universal redemption? How does it come about? How is it connected to — and the fulfillment of — all of the other concepts we have identified? [LISTEN TO AUDIO]
  7. Overview and Wrap-up: This overview attempts to present the tenets of Jewish belief in a single, cohesive picture. [LISTEN TO AUDIO]

[Page Contents]

The Mindset of a Messianic Systematic Theology

After trying for many years to develop a working Messianic Jewish Systematic Theology within the traditional framework in which I was trained, I have finally discovered that it is quite impractical to do so, for a very obvious reason that has only recently occurred to me.

 Christian theology is based on a totally Western (“Greek”) way of looking at the universe. In order to be true to its Biblical origin, a working Messianic theology must be based on an Eastern (“Hebrew”) way of looking at ha'olam (the approximate Hebrew equivalent of “universe”).

In the Hillsdale College course, “An Introduction to C.S. Lewis: Writings and Significance,” Dr. David M. Whalen, in his lecture on “Lewis’s Fiction: Narnia and the Storied Moral World,” provides an excellent illustration of the difference between the functioning of these two mindsets:

To the Western mind, a “good mind” is proficient in distinguishing between things, taking things apart, analysis, dissection, atomization. Analysis and the separation of things is what constitutes knowledge.

To the Eastern mind, a “good mind” is one that pulls things together in synthesis, composition, integration. Understanding the whole is what constitutes knowledge.

Thus, in order for us to develop an effective Messianic Jewish Systematic theology, we must learn to develop that Eastern mindset and worldview and to “understand the whole.” Another way of stating this is that an effective Messianic Jewish Systematic theology must be “holistic.”

Additionally, one of the major tenets of classic Christian theology is that “Israel” and “the Church” are two eternally separate entities. There is therefore no suitable division of traditional Christian theology in which to deal with the fact that “the called-out” Holy Community actually consists of all — both “Jew” and “non-Jew” — who have ever come into a covenant relationship with the Most High.

So far, I have developed a number of articles in an attempt to develop a comprehensive and systematic Messianic theology. I do not realistically expect this task to be completed by either myself or anyone else before Messiah returns in glory to then teach us His (the only true) theology. Nor do I expect such a systematic theology to ever be universally accepted within Messianic Judaism. So it would seem that any attempt that I, or anybody else, might make will be only the codification of our own personal theologies.

David Stern, the translator of the Complete Jewish Bible, suggests an excellent outline for a Messianic systematic theology:[6] I am working on reorganizing the Theology section of this website to address all of the concerns he raises.

Anyone who reads my theology and compares it to that of other Messianic Jewish theologians will notice that I generally differ from most of them in that I affirm the Protestant concept of sola scriptura, or Scripture alone. I do not believe that Moses received a second Torah that he did not write down because Exodus 24:4, written by the hand of Moses himself, clearly states that “Moses wrote down all the words of Yehovah.”[GN] Therefore, in that regard I agree with the Karaites and do not hold the Talmud and latter Rabbinic works as any more authoritative than any other competent commentary written by men (please feel free to disagree; it simply is not a salvation issue). Whenever I have cited any Rabbinic works, I have done so only when those works are in agreement with the written Scriptures and only for the purpose of pointing out that earlier Jewish writers have reached an understanding similar to (or different from) mine.

[Page Contents]

FINALLY, a Disclaimer

As you read through the pages of this website, you will find inconsistencies in my theological position. By way of full disclosure, I am a recovering Baptist. I have been studying the Scriptures for over 60 years, and every time I open my Bible to study (with very rare exception), God shows me something new. When He shows me something new, I have to adjust my understanding of theology to incorporate what He has just shown me, and it is physically impossible for me to go back to the website, find, and edit everything that needs to be changed to conform to my new understanding. I just have to catch them as I happen accross them. Additionally, the first version of this website was launched in 1995, some of the original pages still exist in this version, and my theology has changed dramatically in the intervening years.

[Page Contents]

In This Section

Ongoing ProjectI am currently working to develop this section of the website (and have been doing so for a few years). As pages become available, I will attach hyperlinks to the topics on this list. Whenever you see this graphic (man at a computer), it indicates an ongoing project.

A. Survey: an overview of what Torah[7] has to say about topics which cover multiple categories.

1. Theology 101: An Introduction to The Science of Theology

a. Lesson 1: First Things First

b. Lesson 2: Principles of Bible Interpretation

c. Lesson 3: Counterfeit Religion and the Last Days

d. Lesson 4: Getting Down to Basics

e. Lesson 5: A Brief Summary of Bible Doctrine

f. Lesson 6: Non-Biblical Practices of both the Gentile Christian Church and Rabbinical Judaism

2. The 613 Mitzvot

3. Errors of Christianity and Judaism

4. A Refutation of Dispensational Theology

5. Doctrinal Statements / Statements of Faith

a. A “Typical” Messianic Statement of Faith  

b. Center for Messianic Learning

c. Bible Gateway  

d. Coalition of Torah Observant Messianic Congregations  

e. Messianic Bureau International  

f. Metroplex Messianic Fellowship

g. United Messianic Jewish Alliance  

h. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations  

i. Messianic Jewish Alliance of America  

j. First Fruits of Zion 

6. Basics of Messianic Judaism

7. Rambam’s Thirteen Principles

8. Messianic Thirteen Principles

B. Torah: the Inspiration and Authority of Scripture

1. What Constitutes God’s Word?

2. Inspiration and Authority of Scripture

a. Verbal Inspiration

b. Plenary Inspiration

3. The Jewishness of the “New Testament”

4. Antisemitism in the “New Testament”

5. Torah Keeping

a. Why Obey Torah?

b. Is Obedience to Torah for Today?

c. Torah and “Legalism

6. Hebrew Apostolic Scriptures?

a. Was the “New Testament” Written in Hebrew or Greek?

b. Scholars Who Support a Hebrew Origin of the Apostolic Writings

7. King James Version

8. The Church and Torah

9. Talmud

C. God: Theology Proper

1. God the Father

a. Atributes of God

b. Names of God

(1) Some Thoughts on the Sacred Name

(2) “Jehovah?

c. The Triunity of God

d. The Magen David

2. The Word

a. Logos=Torah=Mashiach

b. The Name That is Above Every Name

c. The Person of Mashiach

d. Yeshua’s True Birthday

e. Yeshua’s Tevilah

g. The Great “I AM”

h. The Angel of ADONAI

i. Theophany Defined

j. UMJC Statement on Yeshua

k. “Jesus Christ” — A False Prophet?

3. Ruach HaKodesh

a. Ruach HaKodesh and “Tongues”

D. Spirit Beings

1. Holy Angels

a. 14 Facts About Angels

b. Angelic Appearances

c. The Angel of ADONAI

2. Fallen Angels

a. HaSatan (The Adversary)

b. Demons

3. Nephilim

E. Humanity: Sin, Atonement, Faith Works

1. Creation and History

  a. Seven Phenomena that were Created Before the Universe

 2. Man in the image of God

 3. Sin

 4. Redemption

 5. Repentance, Atonement, Forgiveness

 6. Election

 7. Free Will

 8. Man’s Moral Duty

 9. Faith and Works

10. Security of the Believer

11. Eternal Life

12. Human Sexuality

13. Sanctity of Life

F. The People of God: Covenants, Corporateness, Promise and the Gospel

1. Covenants

a. All Five Covenants Remain in Force Today

b. Has the “Old” Covenant Been Abolished by the “New”? (Heb 8:13)

Ongoing Project2. Corporate Aspects of the Gospel

3. Yeshua is Identified with the People of Israel

4. God Will Fulfill His Promises to the Jewish People

a. The New Testament Proves It

b. The Tanakh Proves It

c. Refutation of Arguments that God is Finished with the Jews (2Cor 1:20; Matt 5:17)

5. The Promise of the Land

6. The Promise of the Kingdom

7. Conclusion

G. The Future

 1. Rabbinic Eschatology

 2. Six Epochs of the Future

 3. Three Views of the Millennium

 4. Soul Sleep

 5. The Third Temple

 a. Sacrifices In The Third Temple

 6. The Twelfth Imam

 7. Is the “Rapture” for Real?

 8. Resurrection and Judgment

 9. Is “Heaven” for Real?

10. Heaven or the Kingdom?

11Ongoing Project. Messiah’s Return

12. Reward and Punishment

13. End-Time Prophecy

H. Holy Days: The Moadim. Although I have not (yet) included the moadim in the Theology section, it is important to understand that these are God’s appointed times, the times that He has specifically set aside to fellowship with His people. He has promised to be there to meet with you. The question is, will you be there?

I. Other Things

 


After you have read this page, it is recommended that
you begin your study of the science of theology HERE
.


  a. One of the excellent guest teachers at Beth Yeshua International said this in his Shabbat morning message. I just cannot remember which one it was. [BACK]

  1. I do not believe that a true atheist exists. I believe that a person who claims to not believe in God because His existence cannot be scientifically proven to that person’s satisfaction is actually an agnostic, one “without knowledge” of God, though God says they have no excuse (Romans 1:20-21). The remainder of those who claim to be atheists, I believe, fall into one of two categories. Either (a) they know that God exists but He has allowed something to happen that the person did not want to happen, so that person is actually angry at God for failing to bend to that person’s desires; or (b) the person knows that God exists, but because of pride refuses to acknowledge His authority over his/her life (as the archangel Lucifer did). Judgement being certain (Hebrews 9:27), the person simply makes an informed decision to define God out of existence in a futile attempt to avoid that judgment.

“For ever since the creation of the universe His invisible qualities — both His eternal power and His divine nature — have been clearly seen, because they can be understood from what He has made. Therefore, they have no excuse; because, although they know who God is, they do not glorify Him as God or thank Him. On the contrary, they have become futile in their thinking; and their undiscerning hearts have become darkened.” (Rom. 1:20-21)

“Fools say in their hearts, “There is no God…” (Ps. 14:1) [BACK]

 2. David H. Stern. Messianic Jewish Manifesto. Clarksville, MD: Jewish New Testament Publications, 1988, p. 85. [BACK]

 3. “There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism. Central authority in Judaism is not vested in any one person or group — although the Sanhedrin, the supreme Jewish religious court, would fulfill this role if it is re-established - but rather in Judaism's sacred writings, laws, and traditions.” (“Jewish principles of faith,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_principles_of_faith, accessed August 9, 2019)

Moses Maimonides (Moses Ben Maimon, also called Rambam) was born March 30, 1135, in Córdoba, Spain and died in Egypt December 13, 1204. He was a Jewish philosopher, jurist, and physician, the foremost intellectual figure of medieval Judaism. His first major work, begun at age 23 and completed 10 years later, was a commentary on the Mishna, the collected Jewish oral laws. His Thirteen Principles of Faith were written in his introduction to the tenth chapter of Talmud Samhedrin. These have been modified for Messianic believers in Thirteen Messianic Principles of Faith.

It may well turn out that the effort to develop an effective Systematic Messianic Theology is an exercise in futility, since the entire concept of Systematic Theology follows a Greek, not a Hebrew, mindset. This video poses some very interesting discussion points in this regard. [BACK]

 4. “Why are there no orderly attempts in the Talmud to expound the beliefs of Judaism? In a certain sense, the question is anachronistic. We raise the question, I think, more because Islam and Christianity are characterized by repeated attempts to expound their theologies systematically, than because such an approach to theology is intrinsic to monotheistic faith.” (Menachem Kellner, “The Emergence of Jewish Dogma.” myjewishlearning.com/article/the-emergence-of-jewish-dogma/, accessed 7 August 2019.) [BACK]

 5. The Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary estimated 34,000 denominations in 2000, rising to an estimated 43,000 in 2012. These numbers have exploded from 1,600 in the year 1900. As of 2019 this number has increased to over 45,000. [BACK]

 6. Stern, op.cit., pp. 193-195. [BACK]

 7. Here I am using the word Torah (Adonai’s loving instruction) in the wider sense of including everything in the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings. [BACK]

 8. Some will argue that the definition of “scientist” is “one who works in one of the physical sciences.” I disagree completely. The online Cambridge Dictionary defines “scientist” as “an expert who studies or works in one of the sciences” and includes as an example “social scientist,” “someone who studies society and the way people live, or a subject connected with this.” Since the science of theology most certainly has to do with “society and the way people live” I am totally comfortable using “scientist” as intimately connected to the word “theologian.” [BACK]

Page originally posted Tuesday, 09 November 2021
Revised Wednesday, 08 June 2022
Revised Thursday, 07 July 2022
Revised Shabbat, 11 September 2022
Added three videos from Dr. Mike Heiser, Shabbat, 08 July 2023
Revised on Friday, 28 July 2023
Revised on Wednesday, 16 August 2023
Added the Einistein quote on Tuesday, 07 November 2023

Page last updated on Friday, 12 April 2024 02:28 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return
ANXIOUSLY WATCHING FOR MASHIACH’S RETURN,
SPEEDILY AND IN OUR DAY. MARANA, TA!

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