The Third Temple  The Center for
Messianic Learning 

Unapologetically Pro-Torah
Unashamedly Pro-Israel
Irrevocably Zionist
“… out of Tziyon will go forth Torah, the word of ADONAI from Yerushalayim.”
(Isaiah 2:3)
Jew and Gentile (Synagogue and Church), one in Messiah. (Ephesians 2:14)
“For He is our peace, Who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, …”

If your life is not in jeopardy for what you believe, you’re probably on the wrong side!

It is what you actually believe that determines how you walk out your faith, “but avoid stupid controversies, genealogies, quarrels and fights about the Torah; because they are worthless and futile.” (Titus 3:9)

Caricature of Rick Sawyer pointing to the paragraphPlease Note: Absolutely nothing on this website should be taken as anti-Church or anti-Rabbinic. I am not anti-anything or anti-anyone. I am only pro-Torah and pro-Truth (see “Philosophy”), but sometimes the Truth upsets our long-held beliefs. I know it certainly upset mine! For example, see “Why Isn’t My Theology Consistent Throughout the Website?”

Developing a
Systematic Messianic Theology

Caricature of Professor Rick Sawyer pointing at the text“The purpose of careful theological formulations is not to put barriers in the way of people who are seeking salvation, but to define clearly the truths upon which genuine [Biblical] faith rests, so that people will not be misled by false doctrines.” [Bowman]

“It must be clearly and unequivocally stated that theology cannot save you. Only faith in Messiah Yeshua can save you. Theology can only give you sound doctrine.” [RLS]

Unless otherwise specified, throughout this website I use the term “Torah” in the wider sense of including the entire body of inspired Scripture — both the Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings.  I do not consider the Mishnah (the “Oral Torah”) as part of Torah, nor do I consder any other so-called “sacred writings” either inspired by God or authoritative for the Believer’s walk of faith. You should make up your own mind.

[Explanations of rabbinic citations are HERE]


adapted from
Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology

Since no one has see God (speaking of God the Father) at any time (John 1:18; John 6:46; 1John 4:12; 1John 4:20; 3John 1:11) except God the Son (John 6:46), we must assume that all manifestations of God that are tangible to the human senses are in the Person of God the Son. In its most restrictive sense, a theophany is a visible appearance of God in the Tanakh, but not always in human form.

When the Scripture identifies “the Angel of ADONAI,” or “the Angel of the LORD” with the definite article (the) these should be understood as appearances of God the Son, since the Angel of ADONAI speaks for God in the first person (Genesis 16:10) and the human addressed often attributes the experience to God directly (Genesis 16:13). The Angel must therefore be ADONAI, the preincarnate Messiah. Though the Angel is clearly identified with ADONAI, He is distinguished from Him; He is called “angel,” Hebrew מַלְאַ֨ךְ (mal·’aḵ) or Greek ἀγγέλῳ (angelō) meaning “messenger.” Similar patterns of identification and distinction can be seen in Genesis 19:1 Genesis 19:21; Genesis 31:11; Genesis 31:13; Exodus 3:2; Exodus 3:4; Judges 2:1-5; Judges 6:11-12; Judges 6:14; Judges 13:3; Judges 13:6; Judges 13:8-11; Judges 13:13; Judges 13:15-17; Judges 13:20-23; Zechariah 3:1-6 ; Zechariah 12:8.

In the ancient oriental world, a king’s messenger spoke in the name of the king. Any insult rendered him was interpreted as an insult to the king himself (cf. Hanun's treatment of David’s embassador, 2Samuel 10:1-4; 1Chronicles 19:2-6). In Joshua 5:13-6:5, the conquest narrative is interrupted by the abrupt appearance of a being who calls himself the “Commander of ADONAI’s Armies” (Joshua 5:14).

Other angels were sent on missions of this kind (Judges 6:11; Judges 13:3), and some were identified as captains over heavenly armies (Daniel 10:5 Daniel 10:20; Daniel 12:1). Every theophany wherein God takes on human form foreshadows the incarnation, both in matters of grace and judgment.

Following are a number of what may be considered classic theophanies.

  • The Lord appears to Abraham on his arrival in the land, wherein God promised the land to Abraham and his descendants (Gen 12:7-9); God reaffirmed his promises of land and progeny when Abraham was ninety-nine years old (Gen 17:1), and on the Plains of Mamre on his way to destroy Sodom (Gen 18:1).

  • God appeared to Jacob in his dream at Bethel (Gen 28:11-19). It is also clear that in the events at the Jabbok ford, Jacob somehow received a revelation through an encounter with God, although neither a strict reading of the text (Gen 32:22-32) nor its later interpretation by Hosea (Hosea 12:3-4) demand a theophany.

  • God appeared to Moses alone on the mountain (Exod 19:20; Exod 33:18-34:8). God also appeared to Moses, with Aaron and his sons and the seventy elders (Exod 24:9-11) and in the transfer of leadership to Joshua (Deut 31:15).

  • While he suffered, Job had complained that he sought an audience with God (Job 31:35). At the conclusion of the book the Lord appears in a thunderstorm to deliver two discourses, designed to grant Job's request for a hearing and arguably to supply at least one of the meanings for Job's affliction: God is sovereign.

In a looser sense, God’s promise of the land to Abraham (Gen 15), as well as his commission that Abraham sacrifice Isaac (Gen 22), could be considered theophanies. Frequently the term, “glory of the Lord,” reflects a theophany, as in Exodus 24:16-18; the “pillar of cloud” has a similar function in Exodus 33:9. The Lord also appears to people in visions (Gen 15:1; Gen 46:2; Job 33:15; Psalm 89:19; Dan 2:19; Acts 9:10; Acts 18:9) and in dreams (Gen 20:3; Gen 31:24; 1Kings 3:5; Matt 2:13) to reveal his plans for them or to unveil mysteries for the future.

The Lord appears in theophanies both to bless and to judge. A frequent introduction for theophanies may be seen in the words, “The Lord came down.” Examples may be found in Genesis 11:5, Exodus 34:5, Number 11:25, and Numbers 12:5. Although the most common verb for the manifestation of the glory of the Lord is “appeared” (Lev 9:23; Num 14:10; Num 16:19; Num 16:42; Num 20:6), God's glory also “settled” on Mount Sinai (Exod 24:16).

(Original by William C. Williams)

Bibliography. Th. Booij, Biblia65 (1984):1-26; J. Vander Kam, VT23 (1973):129-50; M. G. Kline, WTJ40 (1977):245-80; J. Lust, VT25 (1975):110-15; E. W. Nicholson, VT24 (1974):77-97; idem, VT25 (1975):69-79; K. L. Schmitz, Faith and Philosophy (1984):50-70.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

How Our Understanding of Theophanies
Affects Our Overall Theology
(comments by Ari Levitt)

Since the Scriptures are clear that nobody has seen God at any time except as the Son has revealed Him (John 1:18), it is my firm contention that all physical manifestations of God, regardless of the form taken, are apparances of God the Son.

Understanding this one fact is both foundational and absolutely critical to the correct understanding of the relationship between Israel and God and the relationship between the Church and God’s Torah.

“The Church” insists that any person (particularly any Jew) who fails to accept the grotesque charicature of the Jewish Messiah they call “Jesus” is damned for all eternity. The Church also insists that they are exempt from obedience to God’s Torah.

Yet the Scriptures, both the Tehakh and the Apostolic Writings, clearly state that “whoever calls on the name of יְהוָֹה (Yehovah) [it does not say ‘whoever calls on the name of Jesus’] will be saved” or delivered (Joel 2:32, cited in Acts 2:21 and Romans 10:13).

Yeshua (God the Son) said, “I AM (one translation of the sacred Name of God יְהוָ֖ה) the Way-- and the Truth and the Life; no one comes to the Father except through Me.”

Yet “Abraham believed God, [the original language does not say that Abraham believed in God] and it was credited to him as righteousness” (Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:3; Rom 4:9;  Gal. 3:6; James 2:23; cp. Rom. 4:20-22).

If Yeshua is God the Son from all eternity, and if all physical manifestations of God are in the “Person” of God the Son, then:

It is impossible to comprehend these facts and not realize that Israel has been worshipping Yeshua (the true biblical Yeshua, not the Church’s Gentile charicature of Him) for the past 4,000 years, that it was Yeshua who established the Torah, and it is the obligation of everyone who claims to love and worship Yeshua to obey to the best their ability the commandments that Yeshua gave at Sinai.

To claim that a Jew cannot be “saved” without accepting the Gentile version of Messiah, or to say that the Church is exempt from being obedient to Torah, simply does not match what the Scriptures say.

See also The Angel of ADONAI.

Originally posted on Wednesday, 24 November 2021

Page last updated on Friday, 12 April 2024 02:28 PM
(Updates are generally minor formatting or editorial changes.
Major content changes are identified as "Revisions”)

Anxiously awaiting Mashiach’s return

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